Thus, since the 1980s, the leaders have Country Email List been creating political, legal and symbolic frameworks to advance towards self-determination.13. The Mapuche, not unaware of these debates, decided to advance towards a Country Email List project of "historical character" – as they called self-determination. In the words of José Mariman, these new postulates differ from the land claims of the 20th century; however, the experiences of the Country Email List communities that reinforce the conception of autonomy were the «land recoveries» under the agrarian reforms and the settlements.
For Mariman, the concept of "autonomy" is not Country Email List homogeneous, it reveals an internal debate in the Mapuche "political society", which tells us about the existence of a discourse that emphasizes the ethnocultural or traditions Country Email List when imagining a future for the mapuche14. Now, what is meant by self-determination? In 1983, at the Third National Assembly of the Mapuche People convened by Ad Mapu, it was stated: "The Occupation meant the interruption of the development process of our people and the cornering of our Country Email List population in indigenous reservations."
In the following points, the Assembly Country Email List pronounces itself in favor of the "autonomy and self-determination of our people insofar as we must be managers and protagonists of our own development process" and concludes by upholding the desire to "participate in the drafting of a new Political Constitution that protects and Country Email List guarantees our rights and cultural heritage in accordance with our ethnic identity»fifteen. In 1985, in the magazine Nütram –Ad Mapu 's ideological organ–, it was stated: «a Mapuche without land is not a Mapuche». Years later, in a conversation with Ana Llao, leader of Ad Mapu, she recalled how the Country Email List need for a new Constitution was raised that would recognize the Mapuche as subjects of rights16.